剎那.萬劫.虛空.真空

破柴2中文用詞,受佛教影響,由來已久,見慣用慣不覺其其異怪。相對於常受非議的「西化」,這該算是「東化」。「西化」不過是一百幾十年歷史,似乎太「新」,總有人不願受落,認為破壞中文的底子甚而摧殘中文的根基,罪大惡極,要小心對付,可避則避,無可避免,就要「好自為之」。我的看法是,來自東南西北中,可用宜用則用,不用管它是西化東化低俗化,否則只會不化甚而唔化。

讀《六祖壇經》,不時會有一些慣見卻不是慣常用法的詞語,粗略帶過不求甚解當然可以,若有心尋根究底,自會看註解找詞書,當作文化知識也好視為常識也好,藉此洗刷以改變一下慣性思維,未嘗不是學習方式廣納「意見」的好機會。

在《六祖壇經.般若品第二》中,惠能開講就提到好幾個毫不陌生卻是最好查找一下註釋為佳的詞語。例如「萬劫」;最為人知的成語「萬劫不復」,可能有人會以為那個「劫」是「劫難」,即「命中注定,無可改變的災難。」(見網上《重編國語辭典修訂本》)其實此劫非那劫,可說毫無關係。

「萬劫」中的「劫」,《佛教辭典》(杜繼文、黃明信主編,上海﹕上海辭書出版社,2006,頁237)如此解釋﹕

梵文 Kalpa 的音譯「劫波(或『劫簸』) 」之略,為極長的時間單位。雜語。源於印度婆羅門教,印度教因之。佛教雖亦沿用其說,但說法不同。……

還有什麼大劫、中劫、小劫,不引錄了。至於「萬劫」,之前提過的《金剛經.心經.壇經》(陳秋平、尚榮譯注,北京﹕中華書局,2010)則有如下註釋(頁113)﹕

指經歷世界之成敗一萬次,即言時間極長。劫,是指分別世界成壞之時的量名,為古印度表示時間的最大單位。

既有最大單位,怎會沒有最小呢;那就是「剎那」了。據《佛教辭典》(頁238)的解釋,「剎那」者,

梵文Ksana 的意譯,亦譯「一念」、「須臾」,音譯「乞沙拏」。雜語。佛教用以表示最短的時間單位。

真有趣,最大的時間單位用音譯「劫」最為人所知,通行無障;但最小的單位,音譯卻鮮有人用甚或不大為人所知。意譯的「剎那」卻在文學作品中「遍地開花」,就算「一念」或「須臾」,也在古文中屢見不鮮。語文,就是這麼一回事,沒有人用就是沒有人用,慢慢自會「消失」;一旦你用我用,管它是外來語,也會流行,擋也擋不住。

惠能說﹕「世人終日口念般若,不識自性般若,猶如說食不飽。口但說空,萬劫不得見性,終無有益。」說白了,就是「尋求般若智慧如果只是嘴上空說,雖經歷萬劫,也是永遠不能明心見性,終究對學法沒有增益的。」(《金剛經.心經.壇經》,頁114)求學問,何嘗不是如此。

惠能還提到「虛空」、「真空」,如「摩訶是大,心量廣大,猶如虛空,無有邊畔」,又如「諸佛剎土,盡同虛空。世人妙性本空,無有一法可得。自性真空,亦復如是。」這裡的「虛空」和「真空」,據《金剛經.心經.壇經》的註釋(頁113)為﹕

〔虛空〕虛與空都是無的別名。虛無形質,空無障礙,故名虛空。佛教中往往以虛空譬喻廣大無邊,譬喻無變易的常性以及無礙、無分別、容受之義。

〔真空〕真如之理體,遠離一切迷情所見之相,杜絕「有」「空」之相對,故稱真空。以其非假,故稱真;以其離相,故稱空。

解釋是否有點「迷離」,不用深究,但無疑與我們日常使用這些詞語時的解釋「若即若離」,有吻合也有完全不是那麼回事的感覺。不過,惠能跟著說的話,那才叫「絕」﹕

善知識,莫聞吾說空,便即著空。第一莫著空;若空心靜坐,即著無記空。

說得更白一點,是(《金剛經.心經.壇經》,頁114)﹕

不要聽我談論空,便立即又執著於對空的追求。首先是不要執著於空;如果一味什麼也不想地坐在那裡,雖無善惡分別,但又落入虛妄的無記空了!

自己也要用腦思考分析,不要人云亦云,老被所謂權威呀名家呀大師呀牽著鼻子走啊。

劫1劫2

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11 thoughts on “剎那.萬劫.虛空.真空

  1. 考下你: 「不是我杯茶」譯自甚麼東東? 提示: 不是佛教的東東.

    問下你 (since you’re the language guy): I suspect that「若即若離」, though it may not be a translation from Buddhist scripts, has Buddhist influence in it. What do you think? (I’m thinking about 不即不離; 即此用, 離此用 .)

    「絕」下我自己:
    //不過,惠能跟著說的話,那才叫「絕」﹕
    善知識,莫聞吾說空,便即著空。第一莫著空;若空心靜坐,即著無記空。//
    I think what is 「絕」 about it is that usually when people talk about 空, 著空, 不著空, 妙有真空, etc, they do it in a philosophical way. But 惠能 didn’t really put any emphasis on philosophy; he moved right onto the practice of sitting (meditation) and trashed the practice of trying not to think about anything while sitting.

  2. zpdrmn chang ﹕

    畀你考起啦。

    若即若離是否與不即不離相關,我不肯定,因為找不到證明或否定的資料,但我相信有關。

    至於惠能所說的「靜坐」,是乾坐著,似乎與 meditation 無關。正如我說的名家與你老友公孫先生無關一樣。

    • I can’t be 100% sure, but I think it’s from “it’s not my cup of tea," though some people (probably more so for Americans) say “it’s not my cup of coffee." And “it’s not my cup of tea" is probably from some earlier expression “he’s my cup of tea," which is in a positive sense instead of a negative one.

      公孫先生不是我的老友, 而是我的損友, 損友鬼鬼.

      靜坐 or 坐 is surely different from meditation, but it was used to be translated as meditation (some people still call it meditation). Now, I’ve seen people using “sitting meditation" or just “sitting" as the translation. That’s why I use “sitting" and put () around “meditation," in case that “sitting" alone causes confusion. Meditation could mean something quite different from sitting. If it’s in the context of Buddhism, using the word meditation is fine, but it seems to me that people in the Buddhist circle do not use it alone that often today. (Look at the example below for one of the reasons, I think.) 靜坐 doesn’t have to be 乾坐著 (//一味什麼也不想地// 靜坐). I think what 惠能 loathed was the way of sitting 乾坐著, but not all forms of sitting. (He did sitting himself, as the legend goes). He’s not the only one who loathed 乾坐著. Some other people, including some contemporary zen people, did the same too. Besides the more “traditional" way of questioning it, some contemporay view is that from a biological viewpoint, our brain cannot really stop all the thinking (processes), useless it’s dead. Trying to do so is futile at best and can be counterproductive.
      By the way, if you still think that 乾坐著 isn’t sitting mediation, just call it a form of sitting.

      Another translation example is the Buddhist practice “walking meditation." If you argue that it is not meditation, as used in it’s traditional Western sense, you’re right. But that’s how it is translated. We can call it “walking," but it’s a special form of walking. (If it’s in Buddhist context it should be okay. But I think it’s not doing as well as sitting.) If we don’t call it “walking" and we don’t use the word meditation (so, the translation “walking meditation" is out), then we need to scratch our head real hard to come up with a better translation or use the “English pronunciation" of the Indian (Sanskrit, Pali, what else?) word, which probably won’t be popular.

  3. 引用通告: 學習方法 | 書寫而已 notes and books

  4. Yuki Nagato :

    我沒說笑,是原文照錄。查其他辭典,一般都說「剎那」是音譯。至於是否因為「一念」、「須臾」是意譯,以致弄混,我不敢說。稍後或會再查找一下。

    無論如何,謝謝所提意見。

  5. 引用通告: 剎那.讀音 | 書寫而已 notes and books

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